Potassium hydroxide is a common inorganic base. Its chemical formula is KOH, and its molecular weight is 56.1. White powder or sheet solid, melting point 380 ℃, boiling point 1324 ℃, relative density 2.04g/cm3, refractive index n20/D1.421, vapor pressure 1mmHg (719 ℃).
1. The raw potassium chloride of diaphragm electrolysis method is dissolved into a saturated solution in the salt dissolving tank. When it is heated to 90 ℃, potassium carbonate, caustic potassium and barium chloride are added to remove impurities such as calcium, magnesium and sulfate radical. The potassium chloride solution containing 280 ～ 315g/L potassium chloride, neutralized by hydrochloric acid and refined by sedimentation and deslagging, is preheated to 70 ～ 75 ℃ and then electrolyzed to obtain potassium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen. The concentration of potassium hydroxide obtained by diaphragm method is 10%~11%, which needs to be concentrated by evaporation and clarified by cooling to prepare potassium hydroxide solution containing 45%~50%; It can also be concentrated in the alkali boiling pot and decolorized to obtain solid potassium hydroxide or flaked potassium hydroxide products.
2. The preparation of electrolyte for mercury electrolysis is the same as that for diaphragm electrolysis. Graphite (or metal) is used as the positive and mercury as the negative in the electrolysis chamber. The chlorine generated by electrolysis is sent to the chlorine drying process, and the potassium amalgam generated flows into the mercury removal chamber. Most unreacted potassium chloride is treated in light brine and returned to the raw material dissolution process. Potassium amalgam reacts with clean water to produce potassium hydroxide and hydrogen. Since the concentration of potassium hydroxide from the mercury dissolving room is 45%~50%, it can be used as a liquid potassium hydroxide product, or it can be evaporated into solid alkali or made into flake potassium hydroxide products through the alkali boiling boiler.
3. The industrial preparation of potassium hydroxide is the aqueous solution of electrolytic potassium chloride. Because potassium hydroxide is harder to dehydrate than sodium hydroxide, the purity of commercially available products can only reach 85%~86%. If purification is required, the same method can be used to purify sodium hydroxide.
4. After being refined, potassium chloride is preheated and continuously injected into the electrolytic cell. The electrolytic solution is obtained by concentrating and decoloring.
5. By adopting the ion exchange membrane method, industrial potassium hydroxide is used as the cation chamber material, and pure water is used as the anion chamber material. Under the action of the DC field, K+ions enter the anion chamber through the selective cation membrane to generate reagent potassium hydroxide with OH ions. After concentration and drying, solid potassium hydroxide is obtained. The gas products O2 and H2 are discharged from the pipe respectively.
6. Calcium oxide is generated by heating calcium carbonate at high temperature, calcium oxide reacts with water to generate calcium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide reacts with plant ash to generate potassium hydroxide!
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